Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: 1. Post- operative pain assessment During your most recent post-operative assessment of Mr. Jones, he tells you he has pain in his abdomen. Identify one (1) method of pain assessment used in the adult post operative setting and provide a rationale to support its use. This discussion should be supported by a minimum of two (2) evidenced based resources. 2. Pain management On checking Mr. Jones medication chart, you find a valid order for the following: Paracetamol tablets 500mg to 1000mg orally every 6 hours. You decide to administer 1000 mgs of Paracetamol. In the drug cupboard is a stock of 500 mg tablets. In your answer, provide the working out of the dose you would administer and discuss two (2) medication safety issues and two (2) legal nursing precautions you should consider prior to the administration of this drug. This discussion should be supported by a minimum of two (2) evidenced based references 3. Discharge Planning Discharge planning often involves extensive patient education in relation to the post-operative recovery period. Complete the discharge template that has been provided and attach this to your submitted paper, as an appendix. You are then required to discuss the rationale for the instructions you have given Mr. Jones and his family which address his post-operative management goals. Aspects to consider could be, ambulation, return to work, pain relief, medical follow up as well as any other issues that maybe relevant to Mr. Jones, his needs and his familys needs. This discussion should be supported by a minimum of two (2) evidenced based references 4. Nursing Documentation Write a nursing report about Mr. Jones as if you were completing it in his notes after he has been discharged. The information should convey to the reader what you have specifically discussed/explained/planned for Mr. Jones and his family in relation to their discharge planning requirements. Answer: Introduction This assignment is focused on the case study of a 32 years old male Malcolm Jones, who has undergone a surgery for inguinal hernia. After his surgery, the nurse has to document all of his vital signs as the part of post-operative management of the patient. Based on the post-operative documentation, the discharge planning of the patient is done. As pain is a common symptom after surgeries, pain assessment and management of the patient would be discussed here, along with the discharge panning and nursing documentation (King Hawley, 2012). Pain assessment There are a number of pain assessment tools available for post-operative purposes. In this assignment, the visual analogue scale would be used for assessing Mr. Jones pain, as the nurse addressed an abdominal pain during the most recent postoperative assessment of Mr. Jones. In this condition, Mr. Jones will be assessed through the most common pain scale used for post-operative patients, the Visual analogue scale (VAS). In the process of assessment, the nurse has to ask questions related to the abdominal pain of Mr. Jones and records his answers, which is then assessed through the pain assessment instrument (Berman et al., 2015). The instrument include 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain) range. The psychometric response scale will collect data related to Mr. Jones severity of pain. The nurse would ask him such questions that can depict his level of pain, based on which, the intervention would be undertaken. Figure: Visual analogue scale (Source: Brotto Rafferty, 2016) According to Tiziani (2013) the continuous or analogue aspect of the VAS pain assessment tool makes it superior from the discrete scales, like Likert scale. Several evidences show that visual analogue scales include better metrical characteristics compared to the discrete scales, which helps to apply diverse range of statistical methods to the measurements. It has also been revealed that the sensitivity and reproducibility of VAS is somewhat superior to the others linear pain assessment scales (Daly, Speedy Jackson, 2014). Thus, VAS is suitable for assessing Mr. Jones pain. Pain management The nurse found that in Mr. Jones medication chart, there were a valid order for paracetamol tablets 500mg to 1000 mg orally every 6 hours. Paracetamol is classified as the pain reliever and fever reducer. It is widely used post operatively for reducing pain. The dosage of the medication is decided based on the level of pain, the patient is experiencing. Before, administering the drug, the nurse calculated the required dosage for the patient. In this context, based on his severe pain, the nurse decided to administer 1000mg/dose in every 6 hours (Tiziani, 2013). As the patient had no history of alcoholism or liver disease, thus, it was safe to administer the highest dose of the pain reliever medication. The first safety issue of administering paracetamol is giving the correct dose to the patient. As the nurse is going to administer the highest dose, it should be ensured that not more than 1000mg is administered to the patient, because it can have adverse effect. As the cupboard is a stock of 500 mg tablets, the nurse would give 2 tablets to the patient (500 X 2 =1000 mg/per dose) (Gatford Phillips, 2011). Another safety issue for administering this medication to Mr. Jones is his previous history of allergy. In some cases, paracetamol can worsen the allergetic reactions. Thus, before administering, the nurse should consult with doctor about the dosage. The legal precautions that the nurse should undertake are, collecting informed consent from the patient and completing the discharge form with correct information. Discharge planning The patient is fit and well now for being discharged. His postoperative vital signs have been taken within four hours of his discharge and the vital signs showed no serious complication. The wound area has been assessed by the surgical specialist and has reported absence of infection and signs of recovery. The patient is able to eat, drink and ambulate, as desired. The patient and his family have been discussed about the entire special requirement for his faster recovery. Mr. Jones has been recommended not to lift heavy weight, more than 15kg. He can return to his work after at least two weeks and until then he should take enough rest. The patient and his family have gone through a session related to his awareness about hernia prevention in future (Brotto Rafferty, 2016). An appointment was made for him after two weeks for a wound check with Dr. William. Nursing documentation After assessing all the information, it has been revealed that the patient experienced no severe post-operative complications. The patient was admitted with a surgical emergency related to inguinal hernia. IN spite of having allergy to penicillin and GORD, the patient did not have severe medical history. The nurse before the surgery ensured his physical stability along with the assurance that the patient did not consumed food or any drink since last night. After the successful operation, the patient was transferred to the surgical ward. The postoperative assessment revealed that the patient was able to eat, drink and ambulate. To reduce pain, analgesia was ordered (Tollefson Hillman, 2016). However, the patient informed an abdominal pain during the post-operative assessment. To measure the intensity of his pain, the nurse used the VAS pain assessment tool and based on the pain severity, the nurse administered 1000mg paracetamol. Before discharge, the nurse assessed all the vital sig ns and the surgical site for the presence of infection or any kinds of abnormalities. The patient was released with proper discharge documentation. Based on his post-operative status, he and his family was advised to reduce work load (Hayley, 2013). He was also prescribed not to lift heavy things for next 6 weeks. Follow up schedule was also provided. Conclusion Here, the post-operative nursing care was discussed with a special focus on the 32 years old patient Mr. Jones. The nurse completed all the assessment procedures very carefully, to avoid any kinds of miscommunication or errors. Before discharge, the medical team assessed whether Mr. Jones is fit for leaving the hospital or not and based on his status, the discharge planning was done. Reference List Berman, A., Snyder, S., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M.....Stanley, D. (2015) Kozier Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing (3rd Australian ed). Melbourne: Pearson education. Brotto, V., Rafferty, K. (2016). Clinical Dosage calculations for Australia and New Zealand (2nd ed). Sydney: Cengage Learning. Daly, J., Speedy, S. Jackson, D. (2014) Contexts of nursing, preparing for professional practice. (4th ed): Sydney: Elsevier. Gatford, J. Phillips, N. (2011) Nursing calculations. (8th ed). Sydney: Elsevier. Hayley, C. (2013) Pilitteris child and family health nursing in Australia and New Zealand. Sydney: Lippincott Wilkins Williams King, J.K., Hawley, R. (2012). Australian Nurses' Dictionary (6th ed.). Sydney: Elsevier. Tiziani, A.P. (2013). Harvards nursing guide to drugs (9th ed). Chatswood: Elsevier Australia. Tollefson, J. Hillman, E. (2016). Clinical Psychomotor Skills: Assessment Tools for Nurses. (6th ed). Australia: Cengage.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Organisation learning, which is different from learning organisation, has been the subject of attention and research for some time now (Burnes et al 2003; Marshall et al 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organisational Learning: A Critical Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, extant literature demonstrates that although the concept of organisational learning did not emerge until the 1980s, its principles are firmly grounded on many perspectives of management and its practices identify a broad variety of factors, including organisation strategy, culture, structure and design, absorptive capability, problem-solving capacity and staff participation, among others (Wang Ahmed 2003). The present paper exemplifies some dimensions regarding organisation learning, especially its challenges and recommendations for practice. Extant literature considers organisation learning capacity Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦as the o rganizational and managerial characteristics that facilitate the organizational learning process or allow an organisation to learn and thus develop a learning environmentÃ¢â¬ (Burnes et al 2003, p. 456). It is indeed true that many organisations experience difficulty in making organisational learning a reality due to a number of factors that are unique to the organisation. First, many organisations are yet to come up with frameworks and strategies that they could use to integrate individual learning into organisational learning, implying that they have knowledgeable employees who are yet to be transformed to bring competitive advantage for the organisations due to disjointed programs and frameworks, as well as lack of collectivity of individual learning within the organisation (Wang Ahmed 2003). The second bottleneck to organisational learning revolves around the issue of mixed understanding of the drivers for improvement and learning, whereby it has been found that most organis ations do not keep a standard practice for organisational learning initiatives, leading to confusion and unproductiveness (Marshall et al 2009). Extant literature demonstrates that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the ability of a workforce in an organisation to learn faster than those in other organisations constitutes the only sustainable competitive advantage at the disposal of a learning organisationÃ¢â¬ (Wang Ahmed 2003, p. 9). Arguably, a mixed understanding of the drivers for improvement and learning ensures that the capacity of employees to learn faster remains a mirage.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third bottleneck facing organisations in their attempt to initialize organisational learning is hinged on the issue of different and opposing perceptions about the current learning climate and capability (Marshall et al 2009). Again, this problem is to a large extent caused by ma nagement, who fails to provide employees with a framework to guide current learning climate and capability, leaving them to progress their own opposing perceptions at the expense of organisational learning. These opposing perceptions, according to Hoe (2007), create a fertile breeding ground for employee mistrust and hamper attempts by organisations to acquire, disseminate and use knowledge in response to rapidly shifting market forces. The last bottleneck revolves around the issue of dysfunctional interactions of misaligned organisational cultures or structures that make it difficult for employees to benefit from organisational learning initiatives (Marshall et al 2009). A misalignment of organisational culture not only ensures that organisations have no capacity to learn new trends and ideas from the market, but also functions to weaken teamwork and motivation, which are key to the learning process (Baldwin-Evans 2007). For many years now, Wal-Mart has been struggling to internali ze the concept of organisational learning due to its huge workforce (Baldwin-Evans 2007). To turn the rhetoric of organisational learning into reality, Wal-Mart could: 1) develop frameworks and strategies that could be used to integrate individual learning processes into organisational learning processes, 2) come up with a common standard regarding the drivers for organisational improvement and learning to avoid confusion and duplication of resources, and 3) align its organisational culture and structure to meet specific targets for organisational learning. Reference List Baldwin-Evans, K 2007, Ã¢â¬ËThe future of organisational learningÃ¢â¬â¢, Industrial Commercial Training, vol. 39 no. 6, pp. 299-306.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organisational Learning: A Critical Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burnes, B, Cooper, C West, P 2003, Ã¢â¬ËOrganisational learning: The new management paradigm?Ã¢ â¬â¢, Management Decision, vol. 41 no. 5, pp. 452-464. Hoe, SL 2007, Ã¢â¬ËIs interpersonal trust a necessary condition for organisational learningÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Organisational Transformation Social Change, vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 149-156. Marshall, J, Smith, S Buxton, S 2009, Ã¢â¬ËLearning organisations and organisational learning: What we have learnedÃ¢â¬â¢, Management Services, vol. 53 no. 2, pp. 36-44. Wang, CL Ahmed, PK 2003, Ã¢â¬ËOrganisation learning: A critical reviewÃ¢â¬â¢, The Learning Organisation, vol. 10 no. 1, pp. 8-17. This essay on Organisational Learning: A Critical Analysis was written and submitted by user J0se to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Wuthering Heights In the novel Wuthering Heights, a story about love turned obsession, Emily Bronte manipulates the desolate setting and dynamic characters to examine the self-destructive pain of compulsion. Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights is a novel about lives that cross paths and are intertwined with one another. Healthcliff, a orphan, is taken in by Mr. Earnshaw, the owner of Wuthering Heights. Mr. Earnshaw has two children named Catherine and Hindley. Jealousy between Hindley and Healthcliff was always a problem. Catherine loves Healthcliff, but Hindley hates the stranger for stealing his fathers affection away. Catherine meets Edgar Linton, a young gentleman who lives at Thrushcross Grange. Despite being in love with Healthcliff she marries Edgar elevating her social standing. The characters in this novel are commingled in their relationships with Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. The series of events in Emily Bronte's early life psychologically set the tone for her fictional novel Wuthering Heights. Early in her life while living in Haworth, near the moors, her mother died. At the time she was only three. At the age of nineteen, Emily moved to Halifax to attend Law Hill School. There is confusion as of how long she stayed here, suggestions ranging from a minimum of three months to a maximum of eighteen months. However long, it was here where she discovered many of the ideas and themes used in Wuthering Heights. Halifax, just like the Yorkshire moors of York, can be described as bleak, baron, and bare. The moors are vast, rough grassland areas covered in small shrubbery. The atmosphere that Emily Bronte encompassed herself in as a young adult, reflects the setting she chose for Wuthering Heights. The setting used throughout the novel Wuthering Heights, helps to set the mood to describe the characters. We find two households separated by the cold, muddy, and barren moors, one by the name of Wuthering Heights, and the other Thrushcross Grange. Each house stands alone, in the mist of the dreary land, and the atmosphere creates a mood of isolation. In Emily Bronte's novel Wuthering Heights, there are two places where virtually all of the action takes place. These two places, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange differ greatly in appearance and mood. These differences reflect the universal conflict between storm and calm that Emily Bronte develops as the theme in her novel Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange both represent several opposing properties which bring about all sorts of bad happenings when they clash. For example, the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights were that of the working class, while those of Thrushcross Grange were high up on the social ladder. The people of Wuthering Heights aspired to be on the same level as the Lintons. This is evident by Heathcliff and Catherine when the peek through their window. In addition, Wuthering Heights was always in a state of storminess while Thrushcross Grange always seemed calm. Wuthering Heights, and its surroundings, depicts the cold, dark, and evil side of life. Bronte chooses well, the language that she uses in Wuthering Heights. Even the title of her book holds meaning. "The very definition of the word wuthering may be viewed as a premonitory indication of the mysterious happenings to be experienced by those inhabiting the edifice."1 "Wuthering Heights, built in 1500, suffers from a kind of malnutrition: its thorns have become barren, its firs stunted, everything seems to crave for the ?alms of the sun' that sustain life."2 This tenebrous home is decorated with crumbling griffins over the front of the main door.3 Its lack of congeniality and"warmth is augmented by stone floors." 4 The windows are set deep in the wall, and the corners defended with large jutting stones. Although Wuthering Heights, the land of the storm, sits high on the barren moorland, "The world of Wuthering Heights is a world of sadism, violence, and wanton cruelty."5 It is the tenants of the Wuthering Heights that bring the storm to the house. The Earnshaw family, including Heathcliff, grew up inflicting pain on one another. Pinching, slapping and hair pulling occur constantly. Catherine, instead of shaking her gently, wakes Nelly Dean, the servant of the house, up by pulling her hair. The Earnshaw children grow up in a world "where human beings, like the trees, grow gnarled and dwarfed and distorted by the inclement climate."6 Wuthering Heights is parallel to the life of Heathcliff. Both Heathcliff and Wuthering Heights began as lovely and warm, and as time wore on both withered away to become less of what they once were. Heathcliff is the very spirit of Wuthering
Sunday, November 24, 2019
BICULTURALISMS INFLUENCE ON THE VISUAL CULTURE OF SOUTHEAST essays Biculturalism is an integral part in analyzing the contemporary and modern artwork of Southeast Asia. Regardless of the country, every part of Southeast Asia has its own history with a complex timeline of western influences that have an impact on the style of each countrys art. This essay will focus mainly on Bali in looking specifically at how western influences have shaped the visual style that has since become identifiably specific to Southeast Asian artists in these two countries. There are several various ways that the National identity of these countries in relation to its historical colonial origin have, throughout history, influenced artists in both the content and style of their art but this essay will be focusing on three specific categories of influence: visiting western mentors of the visual arts, the consumer tourist market and its demand on specific pieces of art in Southeast Asia, as well as specific artists and their struggle for their own national identity. Looking at art in Southeast Asia in the twentieth century, one begins to notice a development of technique and style, specifically in Bali, around the nineteen thirties. This has been attributed to the influence of visiting artists, namely Walter Spies and Rudolf Bonnet, both of whom made their homes in Bali in the late 1920s (Geertz, 6) . Prior to Spies and Bonnets arrival in it becomes difficult to trace back the styles found in the modern and contemporary art of Bali. If one were to compare the traditional paintings found in Bali to the works made in the nineteen thirties and thereafter one would clearly see a difference in style and technique. In the traditional paintings discussed by Geertz one sees stiff figures stand[ing] against white backgrounds...There is no differentiation between foreground and background; all the figures are on one plane whereas the paintings made in Bali in the nineteen thirties...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS THE FOUR THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS FOT THE POTENTIAL CAUSES OF PEDOPHILIA - Essay Example These explanations include emotional congruence, blockage, sexual arousal, and disinhibition theories (Bartol & Bartol, 2014). The underlying pillar of theories of emotional congruence is the assumption that pedophiles exhibit childish emotional interests and as such prefer an environment that suits children. Theories of emotional congruence try to figure out why a person would find it emotionally pleasing to relate sexually with a child. These theories highlight the existence of a match between the emotional needs of an adult and the features of a child. Most emotional congruence theories have a psychoanalytic background and center around arrested psychological development where pedophiles see themselves as children. The arrested psychological development perspective explains why pedophiles exhibit emotional pleasure when relating with children. Another perspective of emotional congruence theories argues that due to loss of efficacy and low self-esteem, pedophiles fancy social relations with children as it makes them feel powerful and exert control over the relationship (Bartol & Bartol, 2014). Sexual arousal theories try to find out why some physical characteristics of children sexually arouse pedophiles. Pedophiles tend to generate sexual arousal from certain characteristics of children that a normal man would not generate. Penile tumescence measures sexual arousal to sexual fantasies of children. One group of these theories argues that it is a normal childhood experience to engage in sexual play with playmates. However, pedophiles find the childhood experience to be more emotionally pleasing than adult sexual experiences. Consequently, the pedophile may dislike adult sexual contact and in the process end up masturbating while fantasizing on the pleasant childhood sexual experiences. Masturbation not only becomes an avenue of releasing sexual tension but also strengthens the attraction to children. In the end,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
International Economics - Research Paper Example Capital regulation ensures that banks internalize losses. This helps guard deposit insurance fund reducing chances of losses by the deposit insurer. The recent economic crisis, which was associate with credit crunch started with the melt down of subprime mortgage, which is directly dependent on how banks are regulated. In the United States, the move by Clinton and Republican congress to deregulate the banking sector is liable for igniting the 2008 crisis. This paper focuses on the pros and cons of bank regulation and how it relates with global economics. The paper will also address the pros and cons of deregulation in the banking sector as well as how it relates with global economics. Additionally, the paper will analyze the effects of bank regulation and deregulation on and the financial crisis of 2008. Pros and Cons of Regulation in the Banking Sector The regulation process in US is such that a bank is supposed to take immediate moves to reinstate its capital ratio in case Losses o ccur. In case of losses, banks restore their capital by raising fresh capital or shrinking their asset base. The regulators force the banks to take either of the steps, which prevents instances of failure (Roubini 1-3; Delaney Web). Since United States resulted from confederation of states, there exist dual regulatory systems where banks are regulated by both the state as well as the federal government (Barthy, Liy and Lu 1-5). The 2008 economic crisis triggered numerous changes in bank regulation within United States. The bank regulators increased their inspection on banks particularly on capital and reserves. Additionally, the congress is expected to implement reforms aimed at increasing regulation and make changes on the regulatory systems (Pellerin, Walter and Wescott 1-4). Bank regulation entails chartering and authorizing banks to start business and examination of the activities of the banks through frequent auditing. The banks regulators in United States include Comptroller o f the currency, State Banking Authority, Federal Reserve, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) (Pellerin, Walter and Wescott 6-7; Roubini 6-8). Pros of Bank Regulation Like mentioned above, banks regulate their capital by asset shrinkage or raising fresh capital. Each of these moves has its pros and cons. In case of asset shrinkage, the effect could be either credit crunch or fire sale. Shrinking of assets through reducing lending, the interest rate increases, which make it hard for firms to borrow money for investments. This results in eventual decrease in employment, which is detriment to the economy (Pellerin, Walter and Wescott 10). Bank regulation helps in protection customers and the taxpayer. The government agencies concerned with regulation of banks supervise the operations of financial institutions preventing them from abusing taxpayers. They ensure that taxpayers are not denied access to deposit insurance as well as loans (Roubini 7). The Federal Reserve ensure s that the central bank provides loans to banks. In case of financial crisis, the Federal Reserve inflates the safety net or increases the ease with which banks can access loans from the central bank. Therefore, safety net help to safeguard banks from bank runs reduces systemic risk in addition to reducing the cost of evaluating the health of financial institutions (Pellerin, Walter and Wescott 11-13). Another importance of bank regulation is to ensure safety and soundness regulation. The regulation agencies ensure
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Effects of the Internet on Children - Research Paper Example The internet is one of the most influential developments of the modern world mainly because it affects the lives of almost everybody in the world. It is fast becoming a major source of information with many people relying on it to get news from all over the world, for research, to do market research and make purchases and to keep in touch with one another over great distances. The internet provides a powerful tool for online resources and is an information dissemination tool for many people in the world. Recent researches have shown an increase in the number of children who access the internet everyday in the United States. These children are exposed to many databases, which may sometimes hold explicit, violent, prohibited and at times illegal content. Statistics show that in China, many children come to be exposed to the internet and gadgets related to it from an extremely early age. Parents in this country have been known, in recent times, to buy iPads for their toddlers, something which was not common only a few years ago (Hairong, 2012, Para 7). Surveys in China have also shown that the number of families, which have acquired iPads for their children, is about forty percent, which is a unique fact indeed. While many children have come to access the internet from an early age, they have also come to be exposed to things within it, which are harmful to their mental development. (Hairong 2012 Para 12). In order to help parents curb the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s access to the internet, internet service providers and major search engines have created tools to enable parents to input parental control measures on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s computer at home. Recent research shows that majorities of parents use parental control, and this helps to filter and control the sites that children can access and set safe zones for them. The major setback for this has been that children have been seen to adapt very fast to these software and tools. In addition, they have been known to find w ays of penetrating passwords or firewalls set by parents and access restricted sites (Siegel, 2012 Para 16). The amount of time that children spend on the internet has been found to be detrimental to their mental development because it has made them become too lazy to be creative. Studies conducted at Duke University show that children who spend too much time online tend to have low scores in the test they are given in school (Scholastic News, 201